Business -> Capital gains exemption / Capital gains deduction -> Qualified small business corporation (SBC) shares
Qualified Small Business Corporation (SBC) Shares
Lifetime Capital Gains Exemption (LCGE)
Income Tax Act s. 110.6(1), S. 110.6(2.1)
An individual who owns shares in a qualifying small business corporation may be able to claim an $800,000+ lifetime capital gains exemption (LCGE) when those shares are sold. The actual capital gains deduction is 50% of the capital gains exemption. For annual maximums, see the Capital Gains Exemption / Capital Gains Deduction article.
There are 2 main rules, one regarding ownership of the shares, and the second regarding the use of the assets of the corporation.
See also the CRA guide T4037 Capital gains.
Small Business Corporation Shares Sold to Non-Resident or Public Corporation
The 2009 Budget measure included in Bill C-10 amended s. 256(9) so that it does not apply "for the purposes of determining if a corporation is, at any time, a small business corporation or a Canadian-controlled private corporation". Thus, the s. 256(9) issue outlined below seems to be resolved.
Prior to a Federal 2009 Budget measure, when SBC shares SBC were sold to a non-resident or to a public corporation, there could have been a resulting denial of the capital gains exemption. This is because s. 256(9) of the Income Tax Act deemed that where control of a corporation is acquired, it is deemed to be acquired at the commencement of the business day. The result was that when the shares are sold, they are deemed to be under the control of the purchaser, which is not a qualifying SBC. A taxpayer could have elected to have s. 256(9) not apply, but this could cause other complications. A Federal Court of Appeal case dealing with s. 256(9) is La Survivance v. Canada 2006 FCA 129. CRA issued Technical Interpretation 2006-0214781E5, which deals with s. 256(9) and the capital gains deduction.
It is imperative to get advice from a tax professional (Chartered Professional Accountant) well in advance of making a sale of qualified SBC shares.
Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) Resources
Be careful to minimize the assets in your corporation that are not used to produce active business income, such as cash, investments, shareholders loans, rental property, etc.
This is complicated and can save more than $200,000 in taxes - do it right and get professional advice - well in advance!
Revised: February 18, 2021
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